1. The correct answer is B. Andrew Johnson (b), vice president to Lincoln’s, succeeded to the presidency after Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in 1865. Andrew Jackson (a) was the seventh president, from 1829-1837. Ulysses S. Grant (c) was elected president in 1868, following Johnson. Samuel J. Tilden (d) ran in the 1876 election and won the popular vote but was one electoral vote shy of the win. The election was disputed, and the dispute was resolved by a congressional electoral commission, which unethically manipulated the vote in support of the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes (e).
2. The correct answer is C. Answer (c) is incorrect.: President Johnson’s plan did not allow former Confederate officials to run for political offices. However, Johnson pardoned many former Confederates, who were eventually elected to Congress (b) in large enough numbers to form a majority (d).. Many of the pardons occurred during a congressional recess, and when Congress reconvened, its members did not allow the newly elected Southerners to be seated (e). Instead, Congress appointed a joint committee for the review of policies regarding Reconstruction.
3. The correct answer is D. Radical Republicans in Congress (d) took over Reconstruction policymaking after 1866, when the president vetoed two bills, which were later passed. . Therefore President Johnson was not primarily in charge of the Reconstruction (a). Among members of Congress, Democrats (b), (e) disagreed with both conservative and moderate (c) Republican members. Both the president and the Democrats refused to work with conservative or moderate Republicans, and thus, radical Republicans (d) were able to assume control of Reconstruction policy.
4. The correct answer is A. Repayment of Confederate debt (a) was not a provision of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868). Rather, this amendment declared the Confederate debt incurred during the Civil War to be null and void. Provisions of the amendment also included: the definition of a citizen (b) as any person born or naturalized in the US, including African Americans; a stipulation that representation be based upon the population of male citizens who were able and allowed to vote (c); and a clause prohibiting rebels, who, by their rebellion, violated their previous oath in support of the US Constitution, from holding political office (d). Because (a) is not a provision of the Fourteenth Amendment, answer (e), these are all provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment is not correct.
5. The correct answer is E. The answer that is not a provision of the Reconstruction Act of 1867 is (e): Black Americans were given a guarantee of their right to vote in constitutional convention elections and all elections after (c) by the Reconstruction Act of 1867, but it was the Fifteenth Amendment that specifically proscribed denial of voting rights because of race, color, or former slavery. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 did not allow Confederates to vote until the new state constitutions were ratified (a), and it also subdivided the South into five military districts pending the formation of new governments (b). It further stipulated that Southern states must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and also ratify their new state constitutions (d), which had to receive congressional approval.
6. The correct answer is D. Answer (d) is not correctly described.: Sharecroppers were given land, seeds, and farming supplies by landowners, but these landowners did not help sharecroppers profit; to the contrary, the landowners eventually manipulated their arrangement to the point that sharecroppers did not turn any profits but instead were always in debt. Social and economic changes brought on by Reconstruction included the Freedman’s Bureau’s administration of more than 4 000 schools and the foundation of Howard University (a); the foundation by the American Missionary Association of Atlanta University (b) and Fisk University; community building by black Americans in the form of starting their own churches (c); and depression of the agricultural economies in Southern states caused by dropping cotton prices (e) during the late 1800s.
7. The correct answer is C. The answer that was not a factor leading to the end of Reconstruction is (c): President Grant did not institute or continue stringent military policing in the former Confederate states. In fact, he preferred to avoid confrontations with the Southern states so much so that by 1874 the numbers of federal troops stationed in the South had decreased to 4000, not counting Texas, where their primary job was to deal with Indians. The development of Liberal Republicans (a) was a factor, since unlike the Radical Republicans, the Liberal Republicans were against the federal government’s intervention in Southern states and were therefore against Reconstruction efforts that promoted such intervention. The Amnesty Act, which Congress passed in 1872, pardoned the majority of previous Confederates (b) and bolstered the Democratic Party. The Democrats grew strong enough that by 1874, they had achieved control of the House of Representatives (d). By 1876, the House majority of Democrats had also taken back eight of the eleven Confederate states (e). All of these events [other than (c)] weakened the radical Republican support for Reconstruction.
8. The correct answer is A. The state whose vote was not disputed in the 1876 election was (a) North Carolina. The votes of South Carolina (b), Louisiana (c), Florida (d), and Oregon (e) were all disputed. After Congress removed the only Independent Supreme Court Justice on the electoral commission, which had been formed to resolve the dispute, the remaining commission members were all Republican and voted for Rutherford Hayes rather than for Democrat Samuel Tilden, Thus, Hayes received the disputed votes and won the election. In the Compromise of 1877, Hayes agreed to make concessions to the Southern states in exchange for congressional Democrats’ forgiving the unethical presidential election decision.
9. The correct answer is B. Statement (b) is not true.: While the American Indians did rely on the buffalo as their primary source of subsistence, they did not seriously deplete the buffalo’s numbers. It was the white settlers of the western plains, during westward expansion, who killed millions of buffalo, reducing the herds to a few hundred by the late 19th century (a). This drastic depletion of the buffalo did add to conflict between whites and Indians (c) and contributed to conflicts between tribes. White reformers who campaigned against the treatment of Native Americans supported the 1887 passage of the Dawes Act, which included changing Indian property ownership from tribal ownership to individual ownership (d). While the intentions of the act were good, it backfired (e) as a large part of land previously designated as Indian reservations came under white control, and individual Indian land combined with white domination destroyed tribal authority and unity.
10. The correct answer is E. Sheepherding (e) was not one of the first industries to develop in the Western US; rather, sheepherding, along with farming, eventually supplanted the cattle industry. Initial developments in Western expansion included mining for gold (a) and silver (b), which could only be accomplished by large mining companies once individual prospectors had exhausted the shallow veins of ore.. The 1878 Timber and Stone Act advanced the lumber industry (c) by allowing individuals to buy low-priced land, whereupon large companies funded these individuals and then transferred the individual land purchases to their corporations. With the large grasslands in the West, cattle (d) initially became a big industry as well as mining and lumber. However, cattlemen were soon deprived of grazing land by famers and sheepherders (e) who also settled the Great Plains.