1. The correct answer is B. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) in Europe was known as (b) a “war of religion.” It was fought among Lutherans, Catholics, and Calvinists in central Europe. It was not called a “war of economy” (a) and moreover was not fought over economic issues. It was not called a “war of power” (c), even though it was fought over issues of political power. Indeed, power was more important to this war than was religion, for which this war was named; however, since church and state were not yet separated at this time, religion and politics were so intertwined that political plotting and the ensuing warfare always involved religious issues as well. As with economy, commerce (d) was not used to describe this war. Although the treaty ending this war did cement changes to religious practices that were begun by the Protestant Reformation, the war itself was never designated as a “war of reform” (e).
2. The correct answer is D. It is not a fact that the Treaty of Westphalia provided for reparations to France (d), or even that France had undergone war damages. In fact, the majority of the Thirty Years’ War was fought in central Europe, and none of it was fought in France at all, so this answer is untrue. It is a fact that this treaty gave political recognition to the independence of the countries that are now Switzerland (a) and Holland (b). The Treaty of Westphalia also prepared the way for political secularization of Europe (c). In addition, this treaty marked the decrease in the Pope’s influence over Europe: He stated he was against the treaty, but the signing parties paid no attention to his objections (e).
3. The correct answer is C. Only answer (c) is correct: Following the Thirty Years’ War, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by the monarchy of the Hapsburg royal family, included many Muslims from Hungary after it was freed from the rule of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. It is not correct to say that the Austro-Hungarian Empire was stable or homogenous like Prussia following the war (a). Unlike Prussia, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was made up of a diverse population. This heterogeneity made the empire unstable for the majority of its existence until it ended after World War I. The diversity in the Austro-Hungarian Empire caused major differences among its members in languages and cultures (d) and in religious and political beliefs (e). As a result, even the empire’s military forces did not run smoothly (b) as they were made up of people from various regions with different backgrounds, customs, and attitudes.
4. The correct answer is A. Answer (a) is true: Thomas Hobbes was an absolutist who believed that a leader should have absolute power to protect the populace from their own baser instincts. (The title of Hobbes’ famous book, Leviathan, refers to such an absolute ruler.) Bishop Bossuet, who was the tutor to King Louis XIV, not only agreed with absolutism, but moreover believed in the divine right of kings in the tradition of the Carolingians and Charlemagne. Cardinal Richelieu, who was French Secretary of State and King Louis XIII’s chief minister, had similar conservative views and had established the political and religious practices which Bossuet then maintained and furthered. In contrast to these three, the English Enlightenment philosopher John Locke believed not in a ruler’s divine or absolute right to lead, but in a leader’s earning the right to lead by observing the natural human rights to life, liberty, and property. Moreover, Locke believed in the right, and even the duty, of the people to overthrow a ruler who violated these human rights. Thus (b) is not true: the two Frenchmen did agree, but the two Englishmen did not agree with one another. Locke and Bossuet did not agree, so (c) is untrue. Since Locke held a different view than the other three, (d) is not true that they all agreed. And it is not true that each of these four held a different opinion (e). Primarily Locke’s view was different from that of absolutists such as Hobbes. In addition, Bossuet and Richelieu not only endorsed absolute power, but moreover believed in the divine right of kings to rule.
5. The correct answer is E. All of these statements (e) are accurate. After Parliament impeached many of Charles I’s ministers, destroyed Charles’ judiciary system, and voided the taxes Charles had imposed independently of Parliament, all in 1640, Charles’ attempt to secure the arrest for treason of five MPs triggered the English Civil War. Parliament (the “Roundheads”) formed the New Model Army with Oliver Cromwell as its leader, and they defeated King Charles I’s armed forces (a), the Cavaliers. Following this, the victorious Puritans removed all Presbyterians from Parliament (b). The remains were known as the Rump Parliament, which in 1649 eradicated both the monarchy and the House of Lords division of Parliament (c). In the same year, Charles was executed (d). After more MPs were eliminated, Cromwell and the Bare Bones Parliament ran the country with fairly stable conditions until Cromwell died in 1658. By 1660, public opinion in England held that the monarchy should be reinstated.
6. The correct answer is C. The incorrect answer is (c): The Whigs and the Tories in England did disagree at one point, but by the advent of the Glorious Revolution, Whigs and Tories in Parliament agreed about the revolution. The Whigs had wanted to stop King Charles II’s brother James II from succeeding to the throne because James was Catholic while the Tories supported Charles II. Once James II did succeed to the throne, he exempted Catholics from laws that had prevented them from serving in the armed forces, the court system, and local government. This led both Whigs and Tories in Parliament to reunite against what they saw as a common enemy: the reversion of England from Protestantism to Catholicism. Thus the Glorious Revolution was neither a conflict between Whigs and Tories nor a result of any such conflict. Parliament invited the Dutch Republic’s William III of Orange, James II’s nephew, and William’s wife Mary, James’ oldest daughter, to overtake the English throne. William accepted the offer and invaded England. This did lead to the crowning of William and Mary (a). Another result was the drafting by Parliament of the English Bill of Rights (b). One reason this revolution was called “glorious” was its minimal casualties (d). [Note: This revolution is often called “bloodless” which is not entirely accurate. However, compared to other revolutions, there were few battles, relatively little blood was shed, and few people died.] Since James ultimately fled the country, William’s invasion met with little resistance. This revolution was also called “glorious” because it ended absolute rule in England and can be said to be the start of modern Parliamentary democracy in England. It is true that the English Bill of Rights influenced America’s Constitution and Bill of Rights (e); in fact, it had a major influence on these documents: The English Bill of Rights prevented rulers from making laws without the approval of Parliament; the American counterpart to this is the provision that Presidents cannot pass laws without the approval of Congress. The English Bill of Rights also provided protection to citizens against “cruel and unusual punishment” and “excessive bail,” both provisions also found in America; and it established the right of citizens to take up grievances with the government, also a right in America.
7. The correct answer is D. What Tsar Peter the Great, or Peter I, did not do with respect to the West in the late 1600s was (d): He did not extend already strong influences of Western culture to Russia. Rather, he instituted more Western influences in Russia, which until his reign had not been deriving much cultural influence from the West at all. Peter changed this. He did cause the influential people in Russian government and upper classes to make it fashionable to speak French (a), to wear Western clothing styles (b), to import fine art from Europe and send their children to Europe to be educated (c). In addition, he built St. Petersburg to be Russia’s new capital, located in the western part of Russia near Europe, and in imitating Western governmental practices, he established state control over the Russian Orthodox Church (e). He also imitated Western organizational strategies with respect to the armed forces and the economy, with the result that he strengthened both of these.
8. The correct answer is B. The statement that is not true regarding the Huguenots is (b): The Huguenots were French Protestants, not Catholics, and they were driven out by Catholics, not Protestants. This was largely due to the policies of King Louis XIV (a). In 1685, he revoked the 1598 Edict of Nantes, which had provided for a modicum of religious toleration. Thereafter, Louis XIV effectively pushed many Huguenots out of the country. In retrospect, historians find that because the Huguenots were very hard workers and possessed many important skills, this excision of them was detrimental to France. Thousands of fleeing Huguenots settled in England, with their work in watchmaking and other industries strengthened England’s economy (c). Fewer, but still thousands, of Huguenots settled in Prussia (then the territory of Brandenburg-Prussia) at ruler Frederick William’s invitation, where they also contributed to the economy with their industrious habits (d). In addition, many Huguenots migrated to America, making significant contributions. In fact, there are 11 U.S. presidents with Huguenots among their ancestors (e). These are: George Washington, John Quincy Adams, John Tyler, James Garfield, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H.W. Bush, and George W. Bush.
9. The correct answer is E. Answer (e) is true: These words and names all come from Dutch. New York’s Manhattan, Harlem, and Brooklyn were all named by Dutch settlers from their language, and the etymology of Yankees is the Dutch name Jan Kees. The word “boss” meaning an employer or a controlling politician comes from Dutch [the word baas meaning “master”], as do “coleslaw” [koolsla in Dutch] and “waffle” [wafel in Dutch] (b). The name of “Santa Claus” is from the Dutch Sinterklass, as are the words “cookie” [koekje in Dutch] and “bundle” [bundel in Dutch] (c). “Knapsack” is derived from the Dutch word knapzak; “cruise” comes from the Dutch kruisen, and “skate” developed from the Dutch schaats.
10. The correct answer is A. Answer (a) is inaccurate: In the 17th century, the Dutch Republic was really a loose confederacy composed of states which had sovereignty. Holland was the strongest province in this Republic, but it did not centrally govern the other sovereign states and could not even control them. The Dutch did enjoy world power status economically and nautically during the 17th century (b). This ended in the 18th century when England and France overpowered the Dutch. The Dutch East India Company was formed for trading in Asia, and Dutch merchants settled and also traded in South Africa, as well as conducting trade in North America and the Caribbean at this time (c). Two hallmarks of this period in the Netherlands were religious tolerance, such that it became a haven for many Europeans who escaped religious persecution in their countries by moving there, and the Dutch Golden Age of art (d), exemplified by artists such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, Frans Hals, and Jacob van Ruisdael. During the 17th century, the city of Amsterdam was a world center for banking, and Hugo Grotius and other Dutch philosophers were proponents of international free trade (e).