1. Choice (C) is the best choice. Though Egypt had a well-known pictographic writing system called hieroglyphs, other cultures used different forms of writing. For example, cuneiform is a language that does not use pictographs. The remaining choices played an essential role in all early civilizations.
2. Choice (A) is the best choice. Roman civilization developed on the Tiber River, but it is not considered one of the earliest civilizations. Major civilizations developed along the other rivers listed: Chinese civilization developed in the Yangtze and Huang River valleys; Mesopotamian civilization emerged between the Tigris and Euphrates; Egyptian culture developed in the Nile River valley; and the earliest civilizations in India emerged along the Indus River.
3. Choice (C) is the best choice. This passage contains two clues to the answer: one the river flows north and two the river lies to the south of the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile is the only river listed that flows south-to-north and lies to the south of the Mediterranean, making (C) the best choice. These geographical clues can be used to exclude the other choices: the Tiber is incorrect because it lies to the north of the Mediterranean Sea. The other choices are incorrect because these rivers lie east or southeast of the sea.
4. Choice (C) is the best answer. Hatshepsut was an Egyptian Pharaoh whose name means “foremost of noble ladies.” Sargon, Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar, and Amenhotep IV were men.
5. Choice (E) is the best answer. This passage details the political hierarchy of the Sumerian government. Little mention is made of agricultural surplus, population centers, or technology. Choice (C) is incorrect because the passage primarily focuses on the structure of Sumerian government.
6. Choice (B) is correct. Mesopotamian civilization developed in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley, an area now controlled by Iraq. None of the other answers accurately reflects the geography of the region.
7. Choice (A) is correct. The word “Satrap” is associated with Persian governors, not Akkadians, Babylonians, Egyptians, or Sumerians.
8. Choice (B) is the best answer. Of the cultures listed, only the Hebrews worshiped one God. Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians, and Hittites all practiced polytheistic religions that worshiped a host of deities.
9. Choice (B), Enkidu, is a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Ahura Mazda is a deity in the Zoroastrian religion. Yahweh is the God of the Hebrew people. Thoth is one of the many Egyptian deities. Zoroaster is the prophet of the Zoroastrian religion.
10. Choice (B), Abraham, is considered the founder of the Hebrew tradition. Zoroaster is not directly associated with the Hebrew tradition. Aeneas is a character from Greek legends, sometimes associated with the founding of Rome. Though Daniel and Jesus shaped the history of the Hebrew people and religion, neither is considered the founder.