1. Spain’s King Philip II put together an armada of ships to retaliate against England for raiding his Spanish merchant ships. In 1588, the Spanish Armada sailed to the English Channel to attack. The English, aided by the Dutch, defeated the Spanish Armada (a). This defeat assured the English Navy’s dominant position and encouraged them to colonize America. England and Spain had been strong allies in the early 16th century. However, when King Henry VIII decided he wanted to end his 20-year marriage to Catherine of Aragon because she had given him only daughters and he wanted a male heir, he broke with the Catholic Church, which prohibited divorce. This action gave Protestant reformers the king’s support (b). Between Henry VIII’s breakup with his Spanish wife and his break with Catholicism, the formerly strong relationship between England and Spain was ended. Rapid population growth in England, an economic recession, crop failures, and the growth of the textile industry brought by the Industrial Revolution were all economic changes (c) that stimulated colonial expansion to America. Therefore, answers (a), (b), and (c) were all factors in increasing colonization, so answer (d) is correct and answer (e) is incorrect.
2. The Boston Tea Party occurred in the American colonies in 1773. Britain had passed the Tea Act earlier in 1773, and colonists objected to this law, saying there should be “No taxation without representation.” Boston’s Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to return shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, whereupon members of a colonial resistance movement dumped all of the tea into Boston Harbor (c). The Boston Tea Party was not an annual elite social function (a). It was not a celebration of tea’s importation from China (b). It was not a political gathering (d). And though large quantities of tea were dumped into the harbor, this was not an accidental spill by a cargo ship (e) but a deliberate action to signify a protest.
3. Patrick Henry (a), one of the members of the first Continental Congress, is credited with this quotation during the Congress that eventually led to the writing and signing of the Declaration of Independence. Nathan Hale (b) was a soldier in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He was often considered the first spy, as he went behind enemy lines to report on British military activities to the American army. Captured by the British, Hale is often credited with saying before he was hanged that he regretted having but one life to give for his country. Nathaniel Turner (c), better known as Nat Turner, was an American slave who led a famous rebellion in Virginia against slave owners in 1831. Thomas Jefferson (d) was a member of the first Continental Congress, the main author of the Declaration of Independence, and the third president of the United States. Che Guevara (e), born in Argentina in 1928, was a Marxist revolutionary and a principal agent in the Cuban Revolution with Raul and Fidel Castro, which deposed the dictator Batista.
4. What Emerson called “the shot heard round the world” was the official start of the Revolutionary War. The first shot took place at Lexington, Massachusetts (b), and eight American soldiers were killed. British troops then advanced to nearby Concord, Massachusetts (c) to continue the fight. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a) was the site of a meeting in Carpenter Hall by delegates from 12 colonies to draft a response to Britain’s Intolerable Acts (called the Coercive Acts by Britain and the Intolerable Acts by American Patriots), including John Adams, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, George Washington, Joseph Galloway, John Dickinson, and Paul Revere. This meeting led to the first Continental Congress and the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. Boston, Massachusetts (d) was not only the site of the Boston Tea Party protesting British taxation; it was also where British General Thomas Gage ordered his troops to begin to march toward Concord, Massachusetts (coming first to Lexington) to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock as Patriot leaders and to seize colonial weaponry. Since answer (b) is correct, answer (e) is incorrect.
5. Treasury Secretary Hamilton thought the federal government should assume the debts the 13 states had incurred during the Revolutionary War, while Secretary of State Jefferson was in favor of the individual states having more authority and a decentralized government (e). Those who agreed with Hamilton became known as Federalists. Thus, Hamilton and Jefferson were not in agreement about the government’s role or the establishment of a national bank (a). Hamilton and Hamiltonians believed in interpreting the Constitution loosely, while Jefferson and Jeffersonians followed a strict interpretation of the Constitution, not the other way around (b). The so-called “elastic clause” in the Constitution stated that what was “necessary and proper” could be done by the federal government. Hamilton thought this clause should be used to establish a national bank for America in order to enact the Constitutional clause that the government should regulate trade, pay debts, and collect taxes; Jefferson disagreed with this as he felt it would give the federal government too much power. This is the opposite of answers (c) and (d).
Answer (e), all of these time periods, is correct: The story opens in 1861, on the eve of the War Between the States (Civil War) (a), and the main characters are on a plantation discussing the imminence of war, referring to the firing on Fort Sumter (April 13, 1861) two days before. This epic novel continues through the period of the war, 1861-1865 (b). Main character Scarlett O’Hara marries Rhett Butler in 1868, after the war has ended (c). The novel ends shortly after the death of their four-year-old child and the death of Melanie Wilkes, followed by Rhett’s final rejection of Scarlett, generally estimated to be in 1873, during the Reconstruction, which was during 1865-1877 (d).
The Union army concentrated on Richmond, Virginia (a) in its military strategy. The Confederacy had just voted to move its capital from Montgomery, Alabama (b) to Richmond for its greater railroad access, its position in the upper part of the South, which the Confederacy wanted to defend, and its proximity to the Union capital, Washington, DC (d). Therefore answer (d) is incorrect as Washington was not a Confederate city. Atlanta, Georgia (c) was basically destroyed by “Sherman’s March to the Sea,” as the Savannah Campaign is often called, when Major General William Tecumseh Sherman captured Atlanta and continued south to capture the port city of Savannah, Georgia, which occurred in 1864 rather than at the beginning of the war. Since answer (a) is correct, answer (e) is incorrect.
Samuel Slater of England got the idea of a machine for spinning cotton in 1789 and brought it to America, where he created it in 1791 (b). Eli Whitney invented his cotton gin in 1793 (a). Eli Whitney invented machine tools for mass-producing muskets in 1798 (c). In 1844, Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph message from Baltimore to Washington (d). Elias Howe invented the sewing machine in 1846 (e).
The Progressive Era in the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s, saw a great deal of reform politically, economically, and socially. Prohibition (a) was enacted by the Eighteenth Amendment in 1920; income taxes (b) by the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913; women’s suffrage (c) by the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920; and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (d) was passed in 1890 preventing domination of industries by large corporations. Therefore all of these reforms (e) occurred during the Progressive Era.
Answer (c) is correct: Wilson declared the United States’ neutrality in 1914, the same year that Germany declared war on Russia following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Wilson reluctantly requested a declaration of war from Congress when he realized it was no longer possible to manage the Germans’ actions against America. After Germany and Russia went to war, trade between Germany and the United States had suffered a drastic decline by 1915-1916; 1918 was when the U.S. Congress passed the Sedition Act and convicted Eugene V. Debs under this law for making an anti-war speech (a), (b), (d), and (e).