1. The answer is “d,” all of the above. Students who come from disadvantaged neighborhoods are less likely to have the emotional, social, or educational skills which help them become successful in a school setting. Due to a lack of positive role models outside of school, attendance at inferior schools, and little or no resources, children from poorer homes show a proclivity to drop out of school, listen to peers rather than parents and behave in a self-defeating manner.
2. The answer is “c,” character, morals, and community-based education programs. Through the teaching of individual character traits, these programs attempt to show students what is acceptable and unacceptable so children can chose to conduct themselves accordingly. Morality education programs within a school setting usually focus on such subjects as infidelity, deception, and abstinence from sex and abortion. The emphasis is placed on the individual choosing to do what is right. Community-based education programs endeavor to mimic democratic decision-making in society in order to teach pupils to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to real-life situations.
3. The answer is “a,” citizenship. Citizenship programs concentrate student learning on the way government operates, how the law works, and how the political system is constructed. Examples of the way citizenship programs model might include a mock congress, a student-run governance board, or voting registration/mock voting booth. Citizenship programs teach specific values such as patriotism, fairness, social responsibility, justice, tolerance, freedom and respect for the rights of others.
4. The correct answer is “b,” technology. We live in a highly information-based society that is lead by technology-oriented data which reaches a global market. The necessity for a technologically savvy student far outweighs a high grade point average, a college degree, industry-specific training, or internships. The global market is centered round technology and this technology unites the world. Technological knowledge is demanded more than any other factor in order to be successful in modern society.
5. The correct answer is “e,” lifelong learning. Lifelong learning occurs when people in the job market are forced to engage in continuous professional training and/or education in order to keep up with the latest advancements and research in their fields. Lifelong learning keeps workers employed and ultimately enhances their ability to remain viable in the job market.
6. The correct answer is “d,” two-store model of memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin are renowned for creating a way to explain how people organize and process information taken in by the brain. The two-store model of memory is accepted as a way of showing how we take in, organize, and store information in our brains.
7. The correct answer is “d,” sensory register. Sensory register is a storage mechanism with a huge capacity to store data for a limited duration when that data is taken in by the brain by way of various modalities.
8. The correct answer is “b,” iconic storage register. The iconic storage register is responsible for the processing of visual information taken in by the brain while the echoic storage register is responsible for processing auditory data. The iconic storage register can hold information for one second before it is lost while the echoic storage register can store data for four seconds.
9. The correct answer is “a,” episodic memory. Episodic memory is a part of the long-term memory system. This component of long-term memory stores the personal experiences and activities of a person as well as situations the individual has encountered. The long-term memory system has an unlimited storage capacity and is believed to hold information permanently, deemed pertinent by the individual. Information retrieval takes place when there are sufficient triggers to cause the individual recall the data. The other two ways the long-term memory stores information permanently are through semantic memory and procedural memory. Semantic memory deals with maintaining factual intelligence and data. Procedural memory stores specific information pertaining to the completion of tasks and recalls how to proceed in different situations, given the status quo.
10. The correct answer is “a,” metacognition. Metacognition is the conscious thinking about learning that lends itself to discovering and utilizing the most effective way to take in information in order to retain it. Chunking is the act of categorizing bits of information into larger units, allowing a person to keep more information in the working memory. Automaticity is when someone completes a task without consciously thinking about it. Maintenance rehearsal is repeating information continuously to oneself either mentally or out loud. It is commonly developed in younger children, but is ineffective in transferring information to the long-term memory system. Encoding happens when a person establishes a mental picture of stimuli perceived through the sensory modalities and then processed in the short-term memory.